Artículos de revistas
Pollination biology of Symphonia globulifera (Clusiaceae)
Plant Systematics And Evolution. Springer-verlag Wien, v. 200, n. 41671, n. 101, n. 110, 1996.
The pollination biology of Symphonia globulifera was studied in Central Amazonia, Brazil. As suggested by the bird syndrome of the flowers, these are mainly pollinated by hummingbirds. Occasional visits by other birds, butterflies and more rarely bees, as well as tamarin monkeys were also observed. Trigona bees partly destroy the flower tube to rob nectar. The possibility that S. globulifera may not be primarily adapted to hummingbird pollination is discussed. The pollen is intermixed in an oily fluid secreted by the anthers (antheroil). Each of the five stigmas consists of a pore-like opening at the apex and a small chamber behind it. The antheroil mixed with pollen is absorbed by capillarity into the chamber when deposited on the pore. The pollen germinates inside the stigma. The presence of antheroil and pore-like stigmas in the flowers of the closely related Platonia insignis indicate a similar mode of pollination. The results of this study are compared with observations in some other Clusiaceae (Caraipa, Clusia, Garcinia, Mahurea), where floral oils or floral resin occur. The role of these substances in the pollination process and their relation to the evolution of flower biology in Clusiaceae are briefly discussed.20041671101110