Artículos de revistas
Toll-like Receptor 4 Activation Promotes Cardiac Arrhythmias By Decreasing The Transient Outward Potassium Current (ito) Through An Irf3-dependent And Myd88-independent Pathway
Current Therapeutic Research - Clinical And Experimental. Excerpta Medica Inc., v. 76, n. , p. 70 - 75, 2014.
Cardiac arrhythmias are one of the main causes of death worldwide. Several studies have shown that inflammation plays a key role in different cardiac diseases and Toll-like receptors (TLRs) seem to be involved in cardiac complications. In the present study, we investigated whether the activation of TLR4 induces cardiac electrical remodeling and arrhythmias, and the signaling pathway involved in these effects. Membrane potential was recorded in Wistar rat ventricle. Ca2+ transients, as well as the L-type Ca2+ current (ICaL) and the transient outward K+ current (Ito), were recorded in isolated myocytes after 24h exposure to the TLR4 agonist, lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 1μg/ml). TLR4 stimulation in vitro promoted a cardiac electrical remodeling that leads to action potential prolongation associated with arrhythmic events, such as delayed afterdepolarization and triggered activity. After 24h LPS incubation, Ito amplitude, as well as Kv4.3 and KChIP2 mRNA levels were reduced. The Ito decrease by LPS was prevented by inhibition of interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3), but not by inhibition of interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 4 (IRAK4) or nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB). Extrasystolic activity was present in 25% of the cells, but apart from that, Ca2+ transients and ICaL were not affected by LPS; however, Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX) activity was apparently increased. We conclude that TLR4 activation decreased Ito, which increased AP duration via a MyD88-independent, IRF3-dependent pathway. 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