Atributos físicos e químicos de áreas degradadas pela mineração de scheelita na região tropical semiárida
NASCIMENTO, Alana Rayza Vidal Jerônimo do. Atributos físicos e químicos de áreas degradadas pela mineração de scheelita na região tropical semiárida. 2015. 90f. Dissertação (Mestrado em Engenharia Sanitária) - Centro de Tecnologia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, 2015.
Nascimento, Alana Rayza Vidal Jerônimo do
Mining promotes significant changes in the landscape and soil quality, and is considered one of the major anthropogenic sources of heavy metals in the environment. The absence of measures of health and environmental protection in controlling the impacts generated contributes to the increased risk of degradation not only in the mined area, but in the full extent of the area affected by mining. In this context, soil quality and mining waste diagnostics are essential to guide measures that promote the reduction of impacts and the recovery of degraded areas. In the municipality of Currais Novos, located in the semi-arid region of the state of Rio Grande do Norte, some mining companies exploit the scheelite ore since 1940s. Olho d’Água mine was shut down in 1976 and Barra Verde mine is in operation. These mines, the mining and beneficiation activities of scheelite generated piles of tailings and overburden that are deposited in the soil without any protective measure. This study aimed to evaluate physical and chemical properties of soil and heavy metal content in Barra Verde and Olho d’Água mines to identify stages of degradation in mined areas and establish quality indicators for facilitate recovery and environmental monitoring in the region.The results showed that the absence of control and recovery measures in the mines contributes to the intensification of erosion, which increases the potential spread of contaminants to the other componentes of the watershed. The overburden deposition and tailings areas in the active mine showed stronger level of land degradation among the mined areas. In the disabled mine, the spontaneous growth of vegetation has favored the pedogenesis of the remaining substrates mining and recovery of soil quality, indicating that the revegetation technique is suitable for stabilization and recovery of ecosystem functions of mined areas. Cd, Cu and Pb beyond values of investigation established by Brazilian law indicate to need for remediation measures in mined areas. The sensitivity in distinguishing between the natural and mined area of available phosphorus, pH, potential acidity, clay, total nitrogen, organic matter, bulk density, total porosity, particle density Cd, Cu and Pb makes them good soil quality indicators to be used in recovery and environmental monitoring programs of mined areas.