Aspectos dinâmicos da água versus álcool e acetona por técnicas de congelamento
COSTA, Neymar Pereira da. Aspectos dinâmicos da água versus álcool e acetona por técnicas de congelamento. 2007. 96 f. Dissertação (Mestrado em Física da Matéria Condensada; Astrofísica e Cosmologia; Física da Ionosfera) - Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, 2007.
Costa, Neymar Pereira da
Water still represents, on its critical properties and phase transitions, a problem of current scientiﬁc interest, as a consequence of the countless open questions and of the inadequacy of the existent theoretical models, mainly related to the diﬀerent solid and liquid phases that this substance possesses. For example, there are 13 known crystalline forms of water, and also amorphous phases. One of them, the amorphous ice of very high density (VHDA), was just recently observed. Other example is the anomalous behavior in the macroscopic density, which presents a maximum at the temperature of 277 K. In order to experimentally investigate the behavior of one of the liquid-solid phase transitions, the anomaly in its density and also the metastability, we used three diﬀerent cooling techniques and, as comparison systems, we made use of the solvents: acetone and ethyl alcohol. The ﬁrst studied cooling system employ a Peltier plate, a device recently developed, which makes use of small cubes made up of semiconductors to change heat among two surfaces; the second system is a commercial refrigerator, similar to the residential ones. Finally, the liquid nitrogen technique, which is used to refrigerate the samples in a container, in two ways: a very fast and other one, almost static. In those three systems, three Beckers of aluminum were used (with a volume of 80 ml, each), containing water, alcohol and acetone. They were closed and maintained at atmospheric pressure. Inside of each Becker were installed three thermocouples, disposed along the vertical axis of the Beckers, one close to the inferior surface, other to the medium level and the last one close the superior surface. A system of data acquisition was built via virtual instrumentation using as a central equipment a Data-Acquisition board. The temperature data were collected by the three thermocouples in the three Beckers, simultaneously, in function of freezing time. We will present the behavior of temperature versus freezing time for the three substances. The results show the characterization of the transitions of the liquid