Síndrome metabólica e fatores associados: estudo comparativo com mulheres que apresentaram pré-eclâmpsia e gravidez normal, acompanhadas cinco anos após o parto
ANDRADE, Ana Cristina de Araújo. Metabolic syndrome and associated factors: a comparative study of women with preeclampsia and normal pregnancy followed five years after childbirth. 2013. 62 f. Tese (Doutorado em Ciências da Saúde) - Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, 2013.
Andrade, Ana Cristina de Araújo
Preeclampsia is defined as an extremely serious complication of the pregnancy-puerperium cycle with delayed emergence of cardiovascular risk factors, including metabolic syndrome. The research aimed estimate the prevalences of metabolic syndrome and associated factors in women with preeclampsia and normal pregnancy followed five years after childbirth. This is a cross-sectional observational study using a quantitative approach, conducted at a maternity school in the city of Natal in Rio Grande do Norte state. The sample was composed of 70 women with previous preeclampsia and 75 normal selected by simple random probability sampling. Subjects were analyzed for sociodemographic, obstetric, clinical, anthropometric and biochemical parameters. International Diabetes Federation criteria were adopted to diagnose metabol ic syndrome. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Mann-Whitney, Student s t, Pearson s chi-squared, and Fisher s exact tests, in addition to simple logistic regression, were used for data analysis, at a 5% significance level (p ≤ 0.05). Statistical tests demonstrated elevated body mass index (p = 0.001), predominance of family history of diabetes mellitus (p = 0.022) and significantly higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the preeclampsia group (37.1%) when compared to normal (22.7%) (p = 0.042). Intergroup comparison showed a high number of metabolic syndrome components in women with previous preeclampsia. Altered systolic and diastolic blood pressure (p < 0.001) was the most prevalent, followed by low concentrations of high-density lipoproteins (p = 0.049), and hyperglycemia (p=0.030). There was a predominance of the metabolic syndrome in women with schooling 0-9 years (42.4%) (p = 0.005), body mass index above 30Kg.m 2 (52.3%) (p < 0.001), uric acid high (62.5%) (p = 0.050 and family history of hypertension (38.5%) (p< 0.001). Multivariate analysis of the data showed that the body mass index above 30 kg.m2, education level less than 10 years of study (p < 0.001) and family history of hypertension (p = 0.002) remained associated with the metabolic syndrome after multivariate analysis of the data. It is considered Women with previous preeclampsia exhibited high prevalence of metabolic syndrome and their individual components in relation to normal, especially, altered systolic and diastolic blood pressure, low concentrations of high-density lipoproteins and hyperglycemia. The factors associated to this ou tcome were obesity, less than 10 years of schooling, and family history of hypertension. Overall, this study identified young women with a history of PE exposed to a higher cardiovascular risk than normal